HMP Ranby - EXAMPLE As of 0001hrs 1 May 2016 HMP Ranby near Retford, DN22 8EU is designated as a No Drone Zone until further notice. This is a secure facility so drone use is not permitted. The restriction is from the Surface to 400ft (121m) AGL. For more information including GPS coordinates please download the attached Drone Information Notice (DIN).
It has been reported that a hobby drone was used to take many minutes of drone footage of the UK’s £3bn Aircraft Carrier, HMS Queen Elizabeth, before landing on the deck of the ship. I am as amazed as the ‘drone enthusiast’ was of the total lack of security which allowed this to happen unchallenged.
Although the ship is conducting its sea trials and has not been formally handed over to the Royal Navy the ships builders, the Aircraft Carrier Alliance, should be considering how they can prevent future drone flights around this highly sensitive ship. There are no aircraft currently on-board but the ship has some of the most advanced electronic systems available which, I would imagine, the Royal Navy would want to keep under-wraps. With most hobby drones being able to capture high resolution 4k video there is potential for secret radar and electronic systems to be exposed to external interested parties.
I am certain there is a significant security detail protecting HMS Queen Elizabeth but they seem to have been caught off guard by a simple £300 toy drone which is available from any high street across the nation. Thankfully, this time, drone’s operator was only trying to get some footage of the vessel but in the future the apparent vulnerability could be exploited by someone with more sinister intentions.
The second significant story came from the USA where the US Department of the Army banned the use of drones made by the world’s most popular manufacturer over data security fears. The Department names Chinese drone manufacturer, DJI, over security fears in the memo issued at the beginning of August. It has been well known in the commercial drone community that DJI drones take images and transmit them back to DJI servers, now this has been highlighted as an unacceptable security breach for the US Army.
The US, like many other nations, have been experimenting with low cost ‘commercial off the shelf’ drones like the ones made by DJI. With the revelation that the drones themselves are taking unauthorised pictures and sending them back to DJI there are some significant concerns about data security especially when the drones are being used on sensitive or secure sites.
Both these stories highlight the need of economical and effective Drone Defence . Low cost, commercial drones are being used by individuals for fun and those drones now, it has emerged, are sending images to back to unknown servers overseas. The total lack of drone countermeasures on HMS Queen Elizabeth will have been noted by our nation’s adversaries. We now have a situation where a drone could be used innocently to capture some video of a sensitive site and those images are being sent overseas for anyone to examine at their leisure, potentially exposing secrets and technology we would wish to remain our own.
Drone Defence can help organisations of all sizes understand and mitigate the risks posed by the nefarious use of commercial drones. We have the skills to deploy and manage effective detection and countermeasures systems to ensure sites stay secure.
In 1865 Britain introduced the 'Locomotives on Highways Act'. Better known as the 'Red Flag Act'.
The act stipulated that all mechanically powered road vehicles (cars) must:
· Have three drivers.
· Not exceed 4 mph (6.4 kph) on the open road and 2 mph (3.2 kph) in towns.
· Be preceded by a man on foot waving a red flag to warn the public.
It took nearly 30 years for this law to be repealed but with the talk of mandatory registration for drones in the UK are we resorting to another similar knee-jerk reaction to a new technology?
Recently the Department for Transport said:
‘The UK is at the forefront of an exciting and fast growing drones market. We are seeing drones being used across many of our sectors, improving services, creating high tech jobs and boosting our economy. Drones and their applications are a key opportunity to cement the UK as the place for exciting technology companies to build their business, scientists and engineers to drive innovation, and tech investors to invest – in line with our Industrial Strategy aims and objectives.’
In a little over four years the fledgling drone industry in the UK has grown to over 4,000 commercial drone operators yet the same report calls for mandatory registration of drones over 250g. I wonder how many would have begun their journey into this innovate sector if there were barriers to entry at the beginning? It is well known that any type of barrier prevents the adoption of a new technology, it only serves to slow down progress and it may prevent the UK from having its share of the predicted multibillion pound industry in the future. Companies who are at the forefront of innovation in the drone industry, like Amazon, have based themselves in the UK specifically for the reason that we have some of the best regulations for drone use anywhere in the world.
The somewhat pessimistic and alarmist reporting from the established air users’ organisations is not helping the new drone industry and is arguably not reflective of the actual risks posed to manned aircraft by drones. By lobbying these organisations force the Authorities to react in the only way they can, by increasing legislation. The trend to also put pressure on drone manufacturers is counter-productive and may damage their business model. There is already a growing drone-hacker community and companies are now selling hardware to overcome the hard-wired geofencing restrictions in some drones.
Admittedly there are some irresponsible, ignorant or illegal drone users out there but they are very much the minority. I would argue that education not regulation and the effective enforcement of extant regulation is the best middle ground. As the drone services sector grows a myriad of supporting industry will emerge. This can be seen with the growth in the number of drone training providers, insurers and retailers. Also there are a few business like mine which are drone security providers.
As a business we are helping a number of organisations in the UK and overseas understand the impact that nefarious drone use might have on the. And where legislation allows we can offer more practical means to prevent unwanted drone flights.
If you have concerns about the potential negative impact drones may have on your organisation then we can help you better understand the risks. Contact us on email@example.com or visit our website at www.dronedefence.co.uk
Jane’s Defence Said:
UK company Drone Defence has launched a new concept for protecting infrastructure and events from illicit unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), dubbed Drone Defenders.
The Drone Defenders concept sees the company provide
trained ex-military and ex-law enforcement personnel using the Dedrone
DroneTracker to detect and identify unauthorised UAVs, before employing either
the Dynopis E1000MP and/or the Net Gun X1 counter-UAV (C-UAV) systems to defeat
DroneTracker uses acoustic, optical, and infrared sensors to detect and identify incoming UAVs in real time. The system can either be mounted in a fixed location or is used as a mobile unit, depending on the requirements. Once detected and identified, the unauthorised UAV can then be defeated.
Developed in-house by Drone Defence, the Dynopis E1000MP is a man-portable jammer that uses directional electronic countermeasures and GPS disruption to either steer the UAV away from the protected area, or to cause it to automatically land. As noted on the company's website, the Dynopis E1000MP has a total output of more than 100W and five channels that cover the most popular commercially available UAVs, such as the DJI and 3DR multicopters. By contrast, the Net Gun X1 fires a net to physically capture the UAV out to a range of between 10 m and 15 m depending on the configuration of the net.
In its press release, Drone Defence identified football matches, horse-racing events, air shows, and open air concerts as being key events to be defended by the Drone Defenders, as well as protecting VIPs and privacy. The number of personnel deployed to a location would depend on the threat profile, with a 'Gold' deployment seeing a command post set up with a jamming system capable of creating a 3 km safety bubble, with three to four Drone Defender teams on the ground patrolling the perimeter.
Northants Herald and Post Said:
A University of Northampton graduate has launched what he says it the UK's first complete anti-drone security service - which includes firing nets to catch rogue drones and technology which jams the remote controlled devices' frequency.
Richard Gill, a former army officer turned entrepreneur, completed the University of Northampton's MBA (Master of Business Administration) earlier this year via distance learning.
His new venture, Drone Defence, now aims to protect people and events from the misuse of drones.
Members of the public are able to purchase unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones to make use of their powerful cameras, often capturing stunning photography and video footage.
Drone sales have dramatically increased over the last two years, as the technology has become more affordable, but with this increase in sales there has been a three-fold increase in drone related incidents being reported to the police.
The drones have very fast spinning blades which, if they come into contact with people, can cause significant harm. The machines have also previously been used for criminal purposes, to transport drugs and weapons into prisons, invade peoples' privacy and disrupt events. In conflict zones, insurgents have adapted drones to deliver rudimentary explosive devices on targets.
Richard explained the inspiration behind his business: "After seeing reports of drones being used irresponsibly near airports and flying drugs into prisons I thought that I should do something about it. After working in the commercial UAV sector for the last two years I thought I would bring that knowledge together with my previous experience and launch a business to help organisations protect themselves from unwanted drones."
"We help people by offering them comprehensive drone related security advice. We offer the latest anti-drone technology including a drone jammer and a net firing device. With our 'Drone Defenders' we also offer a drone guarding service which can be used to protect sporting events and concerts."
Dr Mils Hills – Associate Professor of Risk, Resilience and Corporate Security and Programme Leader for the MBA – stated: "It's inspiring to see our graduates progress into commercial success – leveraging their subject matter-expertise with the additional skills and confidence our programme transfers. It's especially heartening that Rick and his team are providing a cutting-edge portfolio of security solutions for a challenge that is only going to become more prevalent and where operators like Drone Defence will set the benchmark for quality and effectiveness".
Drone Defence offers products called the Net Gun X1, a CO2 powered net firing device that is designed to capture drones at short range. They also have a device called the Dynopis E1000MP which jams the drone's control frequency meaning it returns to its operator. They can also offer an anti-drone service for events where they deploy security specialists with the anti-drone technology.
The sales of commercial UAVs or drones have dramatically increased over the last two years as more and more people use their powerful cameras to capture stunning photography and video footage. But with this increase in sales there has been a three-fold increase in drone related incidents being reported to the police.
Drone costs are coming down and they are being sold in more and more locations. The most popular drones, from a Chinese company called DJI, can now be bought in Maplins for under £1000. With GPS positioning and in-built cameras these drones are incredibly easy to fly and can sometimes give users a false sense of confidence.
The drones have very fast spinning blades which, if they come into contact with people, could cause significant harm. Last Christmas a young child lost their eye due to irresponsible use of a drone.
Drones are now being used by criminals to transport drugs and weapons into prisons, invade peoples' privacy and 'buzz' sporting events. The impact of a drone disrupting a sporting event could have huge safety implications for the sports people and the spectators.
A former Army Officer, Richard recognised this problem and launched his business called Drone Defence . When asked why he started this business he said:
“After seeing reports of drones being used irresponsibly near airports and flying drugs into prisons I thought that I should do something about it. After working in the commercial UAV sector for the last two years I thought I would bring that knowledge together with my previous experience and launch a business to help organisations protect themselves from unwanted drones.”
When asked about his products he said:
“We help people by offering them comprehensive drone related security advice. We offer the latest anti-drone technology including a drone jammer and a net firing device. With our ‘Drone Defenders’ we also offer a drone guarding service which can be used to protect sporting events and concerts.”
Drone Defence offers products called the Net Gun X1 , a CO2 powered net firing device that is designed to capture drones at short range. They also have a device called the Dynopis E1000MP which jams the drones’ control frequency meaning it returns to its operator. They can also offer an anti-drone service for events where they deploy security specialists with the anti-drone technology.
Earlier in the year Richard was also the first person to fly a quadcopter drone across the English Channel. The 37 kilometre single flight of 72 minutes was a demonstration of what today’s drone technology is capable of.
When you need to protect your airspace or event from unwanted drones then our Drone Defenders Teams can provide the most cost effective solution. Depending on the environment a two-man team can protect up to 1km of airspace around your facility or event.
Drone incidents are on the increase in the UK. Drones are disrupting football matches, flying over open-air concerts, spooking horses and delivering drugs into prisons. Increasingly event planners and facilities mangers have to put into place counter drone procedures but none can provide the complete solution.
Drone Defence can provide the complete drone security solution to protect your airspace. First we designate your airspace as a ‘No Drone Zone’ and publicise this to the growing drone community. Next we provide a Drone Defenders team to help identify unwanted drones and stop them from entering into your airspace. The Drone Defenders act as a highly visible deterrent who, be their presence alone, will dissuade opportunists.
1. Drone Security Assessment. One of our Drone Security Assessors will spend a day at your venue and complete the D.I.R.E.C.T. Action Plan Drone Security report. In it we will identify drone security vulnerable points and advise you on how to mitigate them. Once you are happy with the recommendations we will then implement the Action Plan.
2. Communicate. The first thing we need to do to stop people flying drones in your airspace is to tell them not to. Using our #nodronezone service we communicate the temporary airspace restriction and ask drone operators to respect it. If there are any unidentified or unofficial drones then we can take the appropriate action.
3. Deter. Our Drone Defenders provide a highly visible deterrent effect, which has a significant impact on the drone operator. When this is coupled with the #nodronezone it provides a compelling counter drone effect. Only the most determined actors will wish to pose a threat and we have the technology to prevent them.
4. Deny. Our Drone Defenders Teams are equipped with the latest drone interdiction technology. Each team deploys with a Dynpois E100MP drone-jamming device. This device uses a directional jamming antenna to block 433Mhz, 2.4GHz, 5.8GHz and GPS signals that the drone requires to navigate. When the drone is captures in the E1000MP’s electronic web it hovers in the air and waits for further commands. If no commands are received the drone will eventually land safely.
The benefits of the Drone Defenders Service
We understand that you might not have the requirement to purchase expensive drone countermeasure equipment. With the purchase of equipment ongoing maintenance and training needs to be factored in. When you add in the speed of technological development of the drone market the system you purchase might only be effective for twelve months.
By using our Drone Defenders you can be assured that you are hiring highly trained drone security operatives with the latest technology. We keep our people fully versed in drone developments and constantly review our threat analysis. We try to stay ahead of the curve leaving you free to mange your event effectively.
· 1 x Vehicle
· 1 x Dynopis E1000MP
· 2 x Net Gun X1
· 2 x Drone Defenders
· Prevent 99% of commercial drones flying in airspace
· Localised drone jamming capability to reduce ‘electronic fratricide’
· Day & Night and all weather capability
· Multiple teams to protect larger areas
· Co-ordination with other law enforcement agencies
· Up to 1km operational range
· Support evidence gathering
· Effective high visibility deterrent
· Persistent protection
Horse Racing Events. There are 31 major racing events in the UK every year, which generate over £3.7bn for the UK economy. After football horse racing is the second largest spectator sport and a cultural export. The impact of a drone being used by an animal rights activist, criminals or terrorist could be huge. A drone flying near the horses at the start of the race could also have dire consequences for the rider. Frankie Dettori was unseated by a drone spooking the horse at Newmarket in July 2016.
Football Matches. There are 38 matches in the Premier League each year, which are worth billions in TV rights and ticket sales. Not only that but the players themselves are often worth in the tens of millions. It has now become policy for match officials to suspend the game if they see an unauthorised drone flying overhead. This pause in the game is not only disruptive for the spectators but could have a serious impact on other revenue streams like advertising.
Festivals & Open Air Concerts. Concert going is expanding in the UK with year on year growth now at over 15%. More concerts are being established and the traditional ones are expending. Drones being used over large groups of people are extremely dangerous and illegal. Event organisers have a responsibility to ensure the safety of the festivalgoers so have to take action. Drones could also be used to violate broadcast rights and effect revenue streams.
VIPs & Privacy. With a more aggressive media the paparazzi are looking for new ways to gain an edge. Stories of photographers hiding in bushes with long lenses are far too common, now they can fly a drone over a wall or close to a yacht to violate privacy. With high-powered cameras they can act with almost impunity.
Insurance Implications. Numbers of incidents with drones are on the increase and the insurers are starting to take notice. At drone Defence we do not think it is going to be long before some type of counter drone capability needs to be deployed at major events to reduce premiums. By using Drone Defence we can help mitigate the threat and we are in consultation with underwriters in an effort to reduce our clients abandonment insurance premiums.
I thought jamming in the UK was banned?
Under Section 8 of the Wireless Telegraphy Act 2006 it is unlawful to install or use wireless telegraphy apparatus except under a license or where subject to a specific exemption. s. 8 (1) says "A person commits an offence if he uses apparatus for the purpose of interfering with wireless telegraphy”.
However, the Police Act 1997, Intelligence Services Act 1994 and the Prisons (Interference with Wireless Telegraphy) Act 2012 makes provision for the use by law enforcement agencies of apparatus that may cause interference.
Will the drone fall out of the sky and hit someone?
There are a few solutions on the market which shoot the drone out of the sky. At Drone Defence we think that this is extremely dangerous unless you can control the ground underneath the drone. That is why we have developed a drone jamming solution. When the drone is captured by the E1000MP’s electronic net it simply stops moving in the air and waits for further commands from its operator. The drone will continue to hover until its batteries run low or it is released from the jamming field. The E1000MP can also be configured to make the drone return to its launch location meaning that security operatives can follow the drone back to its operator.
Does the system work on every drone?
We make our best endeavors to ensure that our systems cover the majority of commercial drones on the market today. However, we cannot guarantee the complete solution. Like hacking a computer or picking a lock there will always be someone who can build a specialist drone which can overcome all counter drone solutions. Our systems have been specifically designed to cover the majority of commercial drones, like DJI and 3DR. We can jam their control frequencies (2.4GHz) and the majority of video frequencies (5.8Ghz). Very few drones use 433MHz as their control frequency and we can counter that too. As new drone technology develops we review our countermeasure devices meaning that our customers always have the latest technology.
Are services like yours damaging the drone industry?
We would argue that drone security solutions are an essential part of the maturing and development of the fledgling drone industry. Given their versatility drones will be used by people wishing to do harm so having an effective counter drone solution is essential for organisations who have a legitimate reason to protect their airspace. Without drone security solutions the CAA will come under increasing pressure to restrict the use of drones which will damage if not destroy the industry. Drone Defence provides a viable alternative and supports the responsible use of drones.
Imagine you are on holiday in the Mediterranean with your family, relaxing on board your yacht when a member of the paparazzi uses their €1000 drone to capture pictures of you trying to relax. No only is this a nuisance but it could be a serious security breach.
At Drone Defence , we can stop this from happening. We have introduced the Dynopis E1000MP , a man portable directional electronic counter measure (ECM) device that jams most commercial drones currently available. Once the drone is detected the E1000MP can be activated to block its control, GPS and video signals meaning that the drone drifts harmlessly away leaving you to relax in privacy.
With an operational range up to 1000 meters, if you can see the drone then you can stop it. The E1000MP uses a directional antenna meaning that only the offending drone will be affected. The operator can control the channels they wish to jam meaning that they could even activate the ‘return to home’ function in the drone and then find out where the operator is.
The system is safe, easy to use and economical. Jamming the drone is the only safe way to ensure that you protect you privacy and not pose a risk to others. In many circumstances shooting the drone down is simply not an option and more novel concepts of using a drone to capture the offending drone are simply not practical or reliable enough to be used in the field. The Dynopis E1000MP is an elegant solution to the problem.
We can also provide teams of ‘Drone Defenders™’ who can deploy for a short period of time to protect your assets. If you only needed cover for a few days or weeks then our teams can provide your complete anti-drone solution. To find out more about our services visit www.dronedefence.co.uk , call us on 0044 (0) 843 289 2805 or email firstname.lastname@example.org
Drones in the wrong hands can be dangerous. The threat is increasing as paparazzi, criminals, terrorists and activists seek new ways to invade individuals’ privacy or to cause harm. For many nefarious users the drone is the perfect device. They can be far away from the crime scene, guide it using its on-board camera, capture images or carry small payloads.
At Drone Defence we recognise this threat and are here to help. We offer the complete counter drone security solution. From drone detection to training and the very latest drone jamming and drone interdiction devices.
The Drone Defence Net Gun is the perfect device to stop the drone that has flown over all of your other defences. It is ideal for prison officers to stop drug drones and close protection operatives to protect their clients’ privacy.
The Dynopis E1000MP is a man portable jamming device that stops most drones in their tracks. Using its directional antenna it ensures that your systems are not affected by the jamming. Once the drone is captured by the E1000MP it either returns to its launch point or hovers in the air. This allows time for security teams to respond.
Drone Defence offers the complete anti drone security service. We can also help with testing, verification and exercises. Our Drone Defence Teams can help you create No Drone Zones to protect VIPs, events, football matches and prisons. If you have a drone problem or want to know more about Drone Defence’s services then visit our website at www.dronedefence.co.uk , email email@example.com or call +44 (0) 843 289 2805
Drones can be called life-enhancing solution for fast deliveries and other military operations. In addition, they can also be termed as flying bombs or weapons of mass destruction (hello from the other side!). If you are a soldier or Call of Duty fanatic; I assume you surely know that getting too close to the target in a combat sometimes result in becoming a target. The dawn of armed drones or UAVs is entirely revolutionizing warfare, combat and other military operations. These drones enable a military operator to simply view (high-resolution cameras installed on drones), evaluate (with the help of real-time video) and execute (utilizing the weapons incorporated in the drone) the target from kilometers away. These defense-bettering features of an armed drone sound really great and forceful when you are on the side of that military operator, but what happens when the target is sending the drone to you or to the military operator? Damage, lots of damage and loss of lives. However, reports suggest that these brilliant inventions have gotten into the wrong hands already, and they will be used against us. It’s just a matter of time. [ Newsweek.com , 2016] Terrorist drone attacks are not a matter of ‘if’ but ‘when’ .
Our Privacy and Security: Totally Compromised
Drones can easily look into our homes through the windows or backyards. The can see us, hear us and record us at any given time regardless of place. Some drones are fully capable of monitoring the Wi-Fi signal in our devices and manipulating our phones. Utilizing a drone, one can easily intercept phone calls and can track motion of all vehicles in the city (yes, all.) In future, these drones will also become capable of controlling our car just by aerially surveying over it on the road. [ The Wall Street Journal , 2015] A 2.8-pound drone crashed on the White House grounds before the Secret Service identified it, it was later reported that the drone was not a threat.
Nothing is in our control and none of our space is safe including our homes, cars, classrooms, and cellular devices. [ Marine Corps Times , 2016] The ISIS is building its own drone fleet by expanding the reach and sophistication of the previous versions. There are so many evidences and reports claiming that the terrorists are using drones and even making drones according to their requirements. And we all know about the requirements of terrorists i.e. destruction and damage to our families and homes.
The Direct Threat to National Security
The threat is not new and it’s not going anywhere. And considering the advent of artificial intelligence-powered drones, military defense on borders sound like a thing of the past because now there are more places for military to defend such as air and free space. Hezbollah , the international terrorist group, is reported ( pdf ) to regularly send low flying drones in Israeli airspace in order to get information and other terroristic reasons. These terrorists are already breaching into our military bases by using consumer drones. Who knows how and when are they planning to use these revolutionary sophisticated devices to carry out terrorist attacks in U.S. or Europe? Nobody. [Special report ( pdf ) by Armament Research Services (ARES) ] The Islamic state, for example, has used COTS small UAVs to effect BDA operations, filming a convoy of oil tankers and transport trucks targeted by Russian airstrikes in December 2015. Still think we are safe? Think again.
Drone Security and Detection
As the enemy is getting stronger, we are also strengthening our defenses. But just like always, the bad guys are a step backward in the long-term. The terrorists are still learning to develop the drones which our geniuses developed years ago and today, those drones are being used by our kids. Presently, our drone scientists are more involved in creating drone detection sensors to strengthen the security and defense from enemy-made drones. In a year or two, they might be able to breach into our homes and military bases completely, but when that time comes, our homes will be guarded by great counter drones powered by remarkable drone technology to protect us from the evil techniques of the terrorists.
Drone Defence believes that the first step in preventing unwanted drones flying above your facility is to nominate your airspace as a No Drone Zone. If you decide that you want to ask drone operators to stay away from your site then we will publish your wishes to the growing drone community and let them know why you would not like them to fly near you.
You also have the option of also putting up some signs to make sure that drone operators near you know where the No Drone Zone begins. They can then check Drone Defence’s website and download the Drone Information Notice (DIN) which gives details about the extent of the restrictions and the reasons for them.
Your facility could be secure, like a prison. Or it could contain commercially sensitive information, like a data centre. Either way the first step in physical drone protection is to nominate your airspace as restricted.
Fortunately the vast majority of drone operators are responsible and will respect your wishes, however there are some who might still ignore your request. If this is the case then Drone Defence can provide systems to detect and interdict unwelcomed drones.
Drone Defence is working with noflyzoneuk.org to ensure that your No Drone Zone gains maximum exposure to drone operators across the UK.
In the same way that anti-virus computer software is a commercial enabler in the IT sector, the UAV security business could do the same for the drone market. Drone Defence is leading the way in the UK in the anti-drone market by bringing together the drone sector’s leading thinkers and security experts to try and mitigate potential threats posed by irresponsible of criminal drone users.
According to a report by Marketsandmarkets the anti-drone sector could be worth $1.14bn by 2022 and is expected to grow at 24% year on year after 2017. They say that it is growth in irresponsible drone users that will fuel the market with the largest growth coming in the low cost and easily deployable anti-drone systems.
At Drone Defence we would argue that a viable anti-drone solution offers organisations and institutions an option to mitigate the threat and will help prevent knee-jerk legislative crackdowns that could harm the fledgling commercial drone industry.
Drone Defence offers a full range of solutions from simple security assessments to full-blown radar detection systems. We believe that basic methods like putting up signs around your property and posting your airspace onto the #NoDroneZone section of the Drone Defence website will help regulate the market all inform responsible drone operators of where people don’t want drones to fly.
The #NoDroneZone is offered in conjunction with noflyzone.org who have a database of over 50 sites in the UK where owners have asked to keep their personal airspace free from drones. At the moment this is a voluntary code-of-conduct for responsible operators but it shows how the industry is developing for the better.To find out more about Drone Defence’s UAV detectors, sensors and the Net Gun X1 then visit www.dronedefence.co.uk
In spite of being relatively new technology, drones of varying types and sizes are readily available for consumer purchase. Where there was once one to two predator drones, now there are delivery drones, hobby drones, news drones, Hollywood drones and sightseeing drones.
Drone Electronics and Operating System
Some experimentation in taking a drone apart revealed that most ready-to-ship drones come with the same electronics as a smartphone or tablet. Nearly all drone code is the same as that found in Android except for open-source coding efforts built on Linux platforms, which can be found at Dronecode .
Onboard cameras are capable of storing video — anywhere from five minutes to two hours of video on a USB stick. Some advanced operating systems allow for real-time upload of video to external storage networks.
Even the cheapest drones have fully operational Wi-Fi, radio frequency and Bluetooth antennas or a combination of all three.
Types of Drones and Movement Capability
Drones come in many types or designs, such as aerial, aquatic, submersible, ground-based, quadrupedal and bipedal walkers, and those that can adhere to walls and ceilings. Several universities in the U.S. are experimenting with insect- and animal-like models, but these are not readily available to consumers — yet.
Drone movement can be preprogrammed or manually controlled by a hand-held device. Manual control requires radio frequency and can operate in several spectra:
• Various short-range FM and UHF bands;
• Unregulated frequency bands (typically 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz); and
• Bluetooth technology frequency bands (very short range).
If a drone requires human control for movement, it is classified as a semiautonomous system. If its route or actions can be preset and do not require human intervention to move, it is considered an autonomous system.
Movement is typically along the x- and y-axes. It can be preprogrammed via code, provided through reference coordinates from a GPS and given by magnetic orientation or from optical queues such as guide markings or lights. Because of these abilities, individuals and organizations must be aware of the threats drones can pose .
Nefarious Drone Uses Within Industrial Areas
Industrial plants should have well-documented plans for avoiding or, at the very least, responding to the following scenarios:
• Drones flying directly over nuclear cooling towers, where they can simply be shut off or drop while carrying an explosive payload;
• Drones targeting or running reconnaissance on sensitive areas such as power junctions where touching two lines is enough to cause a blackout; and
• Drone submarines that can propel themselves into hydroelectric turbines or detonate an explosive next to an aging dam.
New software allows drone operators to incorporate infrared and night vision, which could easily be employed to watch and document security patrols around corporate locations, military installations, national laboratories and federal buildings.
Nefarious Drone Uses Against Corporations
Public and private companies that plan to introduce drones into their environment should have solid response plans for the following:
• Drones that are stolen from corporate teams and used to play back video, audio or motion maps;
• Drones that are wired with microphones used to either eavesdrop on sensitive conversations, execute electronic harassment or commit industrial espionage;
• When data stored on drones can be replayed so that current conditions are not actually displayed (i.e., replay data from two months ago). Granted, this is a sophisticated repurpose but not entirely unfeasible; and
• When the drone network or infrastructure is hacked from within the organization or as the program is developed, which usually means complete compromise of all data. This is an entirely new twist on insider threats and will require the same care and thought that goes into any threat program.
Risk Scenarios and Nefarious Uses Against Civilians
The potential to use this cutting-edge technology against civilian populations is staggering. This short section will not do justice to the myriad of ways criminals will repurpose this technology. Here are a few examples that come to mind:
• Drones can be shut down midflight, injuring bystanders and causing property damage, or flown into situations like traffic jams, buildings or people.
• Drones can be flown into sports venues packed with spectators. This seems like a fairly innocuous scenario until you consider how fast the propeller blades on these drones spin. Removing the plastic guards essentially turns them into flying, radio-controlled razor blades.
• Drones can be flown into commercial jets or jet engines while in flight. Interestingly enough, this scenario has played out several times in the past few months at several airports.
• Terrorist organizations could easily design and build a drone capable of carrying several pounds of explosives into public areas and government buildings.
• Terrorist organizations and extremists could handle, with a high degree of anonymity, explosive or incendiary payloads, radioactive materials, chemical agents or biological agents.
• Any individual with a teaspoon of technical know-how could use drones to stalk, harass or eavesdrop on another individual.
Potential Physical Security Measures
Reliance on human observation alone is impractical. As a result, the following security measures are viable:
• A defensive perimeter can be established around power generation and distribution facilities. It should be implemented around all critical infrastructure and commercial and private airports. For these situations, a mesh of multiple defensive measures will most likely be required.
• Power line protection is logistically unfeasible at this time due to technology limitations, but this should definitely be given further thought.
• Acoustic and/or frequency spectrum monitoring equipment and a motion sensing network should be established both inside and outside of sensitive areas. The monitoring networks could be designed to sound an alarm, send a text message to your mobile phone or send an alert to the wearable on your wrist.
In a worst-case scenario, physical security personnel could practice their skeet shooting technique on the rogue drone, purchase a couple of drone-hunting eagles or deploy a kill-switch perimeter.
Practical Legal Measures
Organizations must also take care to approach a drone scenario carefully. There are various legal measures to consider:
• Well-defined safety, technical and legal procedures on how to take control of a rogue or hostile drone could be defined in advance.
• Handling of any questionable drones should be treated much like any other evidence, with proper chain of custody. Otherwise, any data captured and stored could be compromised by mishandling, thereby diminishing any legal and evidentiary value.
• The vulnerabilities of the chipsets, operating systems, configurations and control interfaces should be clearly defined and remediated as appropriate. For those vulnerabilities that cannot be fully remediated, contingent controls should be established.
• Vetting of all existing and future drone acquisitions by a company should include a technical vulnerability analysis and penetration testing, just like any other hardware.
• A database should be established to document all drones’ history and operational usage. The information required will include, but is not limited to, acquisition (e.g., PO, vendor, manufacturer, date of receipt), physical inventory, picture of device, transmitter and receiver serial numbers, frequencies used, data and radio vulnerability analysis, department assigned and any maintenance performed on the device.
There Is a Positive Side
Drones can be employed for a wide range of beneficial uses. Some examples include monitoring gas leaks along pipelines where it may be too dangerous for a crew, furthering rescue efforts after earthquakes or natural disasters, determining how bad a meltdown at a reactor is, monitoring livestock, mapping terrain, completing storm damage assessments, monitoring the migration habits of endangered species in remote regions and catching poachers on private property.
Complete Lack of Security Framework
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has not yet published a framework for drone hardware, components or source code. Likewise, there is no National Security Agency (NSA) or National Institute of Crime Prevention (NICP) protection profile for drone software outside of those used by the military.
Even scarier is the total lack of any type of standards, governance or open-source security project related to third-party controls and code bases. These standards and security measures will become necessary in the very near future.